Business

Graduate Program

Graduate Programs by Coursework

Graduate Certificate of Business Administration

This program is the first four courses of the Graduate Diploma of Business Administration program. The Graduate Certificate will provide participants with some of the fundamental principles of management. The participants will be required to apply the principles covered in the program to real life organizations. Students must complete the following 4 courses to be awarded the Graduate Certificate of Business Administration.

 

GDBA 6010 Management and Decision Making

GDBA 6020 Human Resource Management Strategy

GDBA 6030 Marketing Management

GDBA 6040 International Business and Its Marketing Environment

 

This program may be completed in 2 – 4 trimesters depending on the number of courses taken per trimester. Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Graduate Diploma of Business Administration

This program is the first Stage of the Master of Business Administration program. The Graduate Certificate will provide participants with the fundamental principles, theories and concepts of administrative management. The participants will be required to apply the principles covered in the program to real life organizations. Students must complete the following 6 courses to be awarded the Graduate Diploma of Business Administration.

 

GDBA 6010 Management and Decision Making

GDBA 6020 Human Resource Management Strategy

GDBA 6030 Marketing Management

GDBA 6040 International Business and Its Marketing Environment

GDBA 6050 Financial Management and Analysis

PRGM 8000 Post-graduate Research Methods and Analysis

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the number of courses taken per trimester. Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of Business Administration (including Graduate Diploma)

This MBA program is designed to enhance the managerial, supervisory and leadership skills that participants need for managing organizations. It covers the various managerial functions including, planning, organizing, directing, marketing, financing, staffing, controlling etc. The participants will be required to apply the principles covered in the program to real life organizations. Students must complete 12 units to be awarded the Master of Business Administration. The 12 MBA units are divided into 2 Stages. Completion of the first Stage will lead to the award of the Graduate Diploma of Business Administration and the completion of the second Stage will lead to the award of the Master of Business Administration. Units required to be completed are:

 

Stage 1: Students must complete the following 6 units for the Graduate Diploma of Business Administration program.

GDBA 6010 Management and Decision Making

GDBA 6020 Human Resource Management Strategy

GDBA 6030 Marketing Management

GDBA 6040 International Business and Its Marketing Environment

GDBA 6050 Financial Management and Analysis

PRGM 8000 Post-graduate Research Methods and Analysis

 

Stage 2: In addition to the 6 units in the Graduate Diploma of Business Administration qualification, students must complete the following 6 more units that will lead to the award of the Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree.

MBA 7010 Organizational Development and Change

MBA 7020 International Marketing

MBA 7030 Entrepreneurship and Small Business Planning

MBA 7040 Multinational Finance

MBA 7050 Strategic Management Formulation and Implementation

MBA 7080 Research Project in Business Administration

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the number of units taken per trimester. Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of Business Administration (with specialization)

This MBA program is designed to enhance the managerial, supervisory and leadership skills that participants need for managing organizations. It covers the various managerial functions including, planning, organizing, directing, marketing, financial management, staffing, controlling etc, and also provides participants with the opportunity to specialize in any of the following areas: marketing, human resource management, financial management, information technology, tourism, travel, banking and finance, hospitality management, hotel management, international business, logistics management, petroleum and energy management and management of oil and gas business. Participants at the end of the program should be able to demonstrate a mastery of broad and highly specialized areas of management knowledge and skills. The participants will be required to apply the principles covered in the program to real life organizations. Students must complete 12 courses to be awarded the Master of Business Administration with an area of specialization. The 12 MBA courses are divided into 2 Stages. Completion of the first Stage will lead to the award of Master of Business degree and the completion of the second Stage will lead to the award of the Master of Business Administration (with a specialization). Courses required to be completed in each of the two Stages are:

 

STAGE 1 – The 8 courses for this first Stage of the MBA listed below will lead to the Master of Business Degree qualification

MBA 7010 Management Principles and Practice

MBA 7020 Human Resource Management

MBA 7030 Marketing Management

MBA 7040 Global International Business and Its Environment

MBA 7050 Marketing Communications and Promotion

MBA 7060 Strategic Marketing and Planning

MBA 7070 Organizational Development and Change

MBA 7080 Business Research Methodology

 

 STAGE 2 –Students who successfully complete the first Stage of this MBA (with specialization) program will be required to complete: either MBA 7085 Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management, or MBA 7090 Strategic Management Formulation and Analysis and three elective courses in one of the following areas of specializations:

 

MARKETING SPECIALIZATION ELECTIVES

MBAM 8000 International Marketing

MBAM 8001 Marketing Project 1

MBAM 8002 Marketing Project 2

 

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SPECIALIZATION ELECTIVES

MBAH 8003 Human Resource Management and Strategy

MBAH 8004 Human Resource Management Project 1

MBAH 8005 Human Resource Management Project 2

 

GENERAL MANAGEMENT SPECIALIZATION ELECTIVES

MBAG 8006 Strategic Management Implementation and Control

MBAG 8007 General Management Project 1

MBAG 8008 General Management Project 2

 

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT SPECIALIZATION ELECTIVES

MBAI 8009 Information Technology Management

MBAI 8010 Information Technology Management Project 1

MBAI 8011 Information Technology Management Project 2

 

TOURISM, TRAVEL AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT SPECIALIZATION ELECTIVES

MBAT 8012 Tourism, Travel and Hospitality Management

MBAT 8013 Tourism, Travel and Hospitality Management Project 1

MBAT 8014 Tourism, Travel and Hospitality Management Project 2

 

HOSPITALITY AND HOTEL MANAGEMENT SPECIALIZATION ELECTIVES

HMBA 8015 Hotel Management in Hospitality Industry

HMBA 8016 Hotel Management in Hospitality Industry Project 1

HMBA 8017 Hotel Management in Hospitality Industry Project 2

 

HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATION AND HEALTH CARE MANAGEMENT SPECIALIZATION ELECTIVES

HMBA 8018 Strategic Planning in Private Hospitals and Health Care Organizations

HMBA 8019 Hospital Administration and Health Care Management Project 1

HMBA 8020 Hospital Administration and Health Care Management Project 2

 

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT SPECIALIZATION ELECTIVES

IMBA 8021 International Business Management

IMBA 8022 International Business Project 1

IMBA 8023 International Business Project 2

 

LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT SPECIALIZATION ELECTIVES

LMBA 8024 Logistics Management

LMBA 8025 Logistics Management Project 1

LMBA 8026 Logistics Management Project 2

 

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SPECIALIZATION ELECTIVES

FINM 8027 Financial Management

FINM 8028 Financial Management Project 1

FINM 8029 Financial Management Project 2

 

OIL AND GAS BUSINESS MANAGEMENT SPECIALIZATION ELECTIVES 

OGBM 8030 Oil and Gas Exploration Business

OGBM 8031 Management of Oil and Gas Business Project 1

OGBM 8032 Management of Oil and Gas Business Project 2

 

PETROLEUM AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT SPECIALIZATION ELECTIVES 

PENM 8041 Petroleum Exploration

PENM 8042 Management of Energy and Petroleum Business Project 1

PENM 8043 Management of Energy and Petroleum Business Project 2

 

BANKING AND FINANCE SPECIALIZATION ELECTIVES

BFIN 8051 Banking and Financial Management

BFIN 8052 Banking and Finance Project 1

BFIN 8053 Banking and Finance Project 2

 

INTERNATIONAL MARKETING SPECIALIZATION ELECTIVES

MBAM 8000 International Marketing

MBAI 8061 International Marketing Project 1

MBAI 8062 International Marketing Project 2

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the number of courses taken per trimester. Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Executive Master of Business Administration

This Executive MBA program is designed to enhance the managerial, supervisory and leadership skills that participants need for managing organizations. It covers the various managerial functions including, planning, organizing, directing, marketing, financing, staffing, controlling etc. Participants at the end of the program should be able to demonstrate a mastery of broad and highly specialized areas of management knowledge and skills. The participants will be required to apply the principles covered in the program to real life organizations. Only people with at least two years of managerial or supervisory experience in business or in not-for-profit organizations can apply for this program. Participants must complete the following 12 courses to be awarded the Executive Master of Business Administration. The 12 courses in this executive MBA are divided into 2 Stages:

 

Stage 1 – Completion of the following 8 courses for the first Stage of the executive MBA program will lead to the award of the Executive Master of Business (EMBus) degree.

EMBA 7010 Management Principles and Practice

EMBA 7020 Human Resource Management

EMBA 7030 Marketing Management

EMBA 7040 International Marketing and Its Environment

EMBA 7050 Organizational Development and Change

EMBA 7060 Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management

EMBA 7070 Marketing Communications and Promotion

EMBA 7080 Strategic Marketing Planning

 

Stage 2 – Students who successfully complete the first Stage plus the following 4 courses in the second Stage of the Executive MBA program will be awarded the Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) degree. Students must pass the first Stage (i.e. Stage 1: Executive Master of Business Degree) before they can proceed to the second Stage.

EMBA 8010 Financial Management

EMBA 8020 Strategic Management Formulation and Analysis

EMBA 8030 International Marketing

EMBA 8040 General Management Project

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the number of courses taken per trimester. Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of Business Administration (with Honors)

This program is designed to provide participants with an opportunity to study a research methodology course and also conduct a research study that will enable them to specialize in any of the following areas: Information Technology, Finance, Productivity management, General Management; Human Resource Management; International Business; Retail Management; Education Administration; International Marketing; Software Computer Management; Logistic Management; Internet Marketing Management; Marketing; Health Care Management, Hospitality Management; Tourism and Travel, Hotel Management, etc.

 

To be awarded MBA (with Honors) students must complete 12 MBA courses. In addition to the 12 MBA courses, students must also complete the following two courses or 2 additional research projects in the area of specialization.

 

MBAH 7000 Research Methods and Analysis

MBAH 8090 Master of Business Administration Honors Project

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the number of courses taken per trimester and the amount of time students put into the study. For the research project, students can consult their supervisors through emails, faxes and telephone calls. Students can also visit their supervisors for face-to-face supervision and/or students can organize video conferencing sessions (if necessary). Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of Business (General Management)

This program is designed for anyone with a recognised Bachelor degree who wishes to study General management at a Master degree level. The program will enable participants to know how and when to analyse, diagnose, design and execute judgments across a broad range of management and administrative functions in business and non- business organizations. The course will also provide participants with an in-depth understanding of the concepts and theories of management and administration. The participants will be required to apply the principles covered in the program to real life organizations. Students must complete the following 8 advanced courses to be awarded the Master of Business – General Management.

 

GDBA 7010 Management Principles and Practice

GDBA 7020 Human Resource Management

GDBA 7030 Marketing Management

GDBA 7040 International Marketing and Its Environment

GDBA 7060 Organizational Development and Change

GDBA 7070 Financial Management

 

Plus any two of the following MBA courses

MBA 8010 Advanced Studies in Administrative Leadership

MBA 8020 Advanced Studies in Promotion and Advertising Management

MBA 8030 Strategic Marketing

MBA 8040 International Marketing

MBA 8050 Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management

MBA 8060 Strategic Management

MBA 8061 Information Technology Management project

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the number of courses taken per trimester. Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of International Business and Management

This program is designed for anyone with a recognized Bachelor degree or anyone with either a Postgraduate Certificate or Postgraduate Diploma or an Advanced Diploma who wishes to study International business and management at a Master degree level. The course will provide participants with an in-depth understanding of the concepts and theories of international business and management. The participants will be required to apply the principles covered in the program to real life organizations. Students must complete the following 8 advanced courses to be awarded the Master of International Business and management degree.

 

MIBM 7010 Management Principles and Practice

MIBM 7020 Human Resource Management

MIBM 7030 Marketing Management

MIBM 7040 International Marketing and Its Environment

MIBM 7050 International Business Strategies

MIBM 7060 International Finance and Credit Management

MIBM 7070 International Business Negotiations

MIBM 7080 Managing Export in International Business

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the number of courses taken per trimester. Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of Business (Information Technology Management)

This program is designed for anyone with a recognised Bachelor degree who wishes to study Information Technology as part of the Master of Business degree level. The program will enable participants to know how and when to analyse, diagnose, design and execute judgments across a broad range of management and administrative functions in business and non- business organizations. It will also enable participants to complete two projects in the area of Information Technology Management. The participants will be required to apply the principles covered in the program to real life organizations. Students must complete the following 8 advanced courses to be awarded the Master of Business – General Management.

 

MGBM 6010 Advanced Studies in Management and Organization Behaviour

MBGM 6020 Advanced Studies in Human Resource Management

MBGM 6040 Advanced Studies in Organizational Development and Change

MBGM 6030 Advanced Studies in International Marketing

MBGM 6050 Advanced Studies in Promotion and Advertising Management

MBGM 6060 Advanced Studies in Financial Management

MITM 6070 Information Technology Management Project I

MITM 6080 Information Technology Management Project II

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the number of courses taken per trimester. Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of Business (Retail Management)

This program is designed for anyone with a recognised Bachelor degree who wishes to study retail management at a Master degree level. The program will enable participants to know how and when to analyse, diagnose, design and execute judgments across a broad range of management and administrative functions particularly in the retail industry. The course will also provide participants with an in-depth understanding of the concepts and theories of management and administration. The participants will be required to apply the principles covered in the program to real life organizations. Students must complete 8 advanced courses to be awarded the Master of Business – Retail Management.

 

MBRM 6010 Advanced Studies in Management and Organization Behaviour

MBRM 6020 Advanced Studies in Human Resource Management

MBRM 6040 Advanced Studies in Organizational Development and Change

MBRM 6030 Advanced Studies in International Marketing

MBRM 6050 Advanced Studies in Promotion and Advertising Management

MBRM 6060 Advanced Studies in Financial Management

MBRM 6070 Advanced Studies in Retail Management

MBRM 6080 Advanced Studies in Strategic Retail Planning and Management

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the number of courses taken per trimester. Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of Business (Logistics Management)

This program is designed for anyone with a recognised Bachelor degree who wishes to study logistics management at a Master degree level. The program will enable participants to know how and when to analyse, diagnose, design and execute judgments in the area of business particularly in logistics management. The program will also provide participants with an in-depth understanding of the concepts and theories of logistics management. The participants will be required to apply the principles covered in the program to real life organizations. Students must complete the equivalent of 8 courses out of the following courses to be awarded the Master of Business -Logistics Management.

 

MBLOG 6010 Management Principles and Practice

MBLOG 6020 Marketing Management

MBLOG 6030 Human Resources Management or MBLOG 6040 International Marketing and Its Environment

MBLOG 6000 Logistics and the Economy

MBLOG 6001 Inventory Management in Logistics

MBLOG 6002 Materials Management in Logistics

MBLOG 6003 Warehousing Operations in Logistics

MBLOG 6004 Transportation in Logistics

 

NOTE: Students can substitute MBLOG 6000, MBLOG 6001 and MBLOG 6002 with MALOG 670 Research Project in Logistics Management. The Research Project in Logistics Management is equivalent to 3 courses in the program.

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the number of courses taken per trimester. Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of Commercial Law

This program is designed for anyone with a recognized law degree or anyone who has completed one or two law subjects as part of their Bachelor degree in business, commerce, accounting, finance, marketing, or management who wishes to study commercial law at a postgraduate level. The course will provide participants with an in-depth understanding of the theoretical and practical principles of commercial law. The participants will be required to apply the principles covered in the program to real life organizations and to also research legal issues. Students must complete 8 advanced courses to be awarded the Master of Commercial Law.

 

MACL 7010 Advanced Contract Law I

MACL 7020 Advanced Contract Law II

MACL 7030 Advanced Business Law I

MACL 7040 Advanced Business Law II

MACL 7050 Advanced International Business Law I

MACL 7060 Advanced International Business Law II

MACL 7070 Advanced Commercial Law Research Project I

MACL 7080 Advanced Commercial Law Research Project II

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the number of courses taken per trimester. Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of Public Administration (MPA)

This Master of Public Administration degree program is designed to enhance the managerial, supervisory and leadership skills that participants need for managing organizations in the public sector. It covers the various managerial functions including, planning, organizing, directing, marketing, financing, staffing, controlling etc. Participants at the end of the program should be able to demonstrate a mastery of broad and highly specialized areas of management knowledge and skills. The participants will be required to apply the principles covered in the program to real life organizations in the public and semi-government organizations. Participants must complete the following 9 courses to be awarded the Master of Public Administration. The 9 MPA courses in this are divided into 2 Stages:

 

STAGE 1 – Completion of the following 4 courses for the first Stage of the MPA program will lead to the award of a Graduate Certificate of Public Administration qualification:

MPAC 7010 Management Principles and Practice

MPAC 7020 Human Resource Management

MPAC 7030 Marketing Management

MPAC 7040 Administrative Leadership

 

STAGE 2- Students who successfully complete the first Stage (i.e. Graduate Certificate of Public Administration program) and the following 5 courses in the second Stage of the MPA program will be awarded the Master of Public Administration degree.

MPAC 7050 Organizational Development and Change

MPAC 7060 Financial Management

MPAC 7070 Management and Organization Behaviour

MPAC 7080 Promotion and Advertising Management

MPAC 7090 Master of Public Administration Project

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the number of courses taken per trimester. Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Graduate Programs by Research

Master of Commerce

This program is designed for participants to conduct research in the area of commerce. To receive a Master of Commerce degree participants must pass:

 

PRGM 8000 Post-graduate Research Methods and Analysis

MCOM 7001 Master of Commerce Dissertation

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the amount of time students put into the study. Students can consult their supervisors through emails, faxes and telephone calls. Students can also visit their supervisors for face-to-face supervision and/or students can organize video conferencing sessions (if necessary). Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of E-Business and Information Technology

This program is designed for participants to conduct research in the area of E-Business and Information Technology. To receive a Master of E-Business and Information Technology degree participants must pass:

 

PRGM 8000 Post-graduate Research Methods and Analysis

MEIT 7001 Master of E-Business and Information Technology Dissertation

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the amount of time students put into the study. Students can consult their supervisors through emails, faxes and telephone calls. Students can also visit their supervisors for face-to-face supervision and/or students can organize video conferencing sessions (if necessary). Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of International Business

This program is designed for participants to conduct research in the area International Business. To receive a Master of International Business degree participants must pass:

 

PRGM 8000 Post-graduate Research Methods and Analysis

MIBU 7001 Master of International Business Dissertation

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the amount of time students put into the study. Students can consult their supervisors through emails, faxes and telephone calls. Students can also visit their supervisors for face-to-face supervision and/or students can organize video conferencing sessions (if necessary). Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of Business Law

This program is designed for participants to conduct research in any area of Business Law. To receive a Master of Business Law degree, participants must pass:

 

PRGM 8000 Post-graduate Research Methods and Analysis

MBLA 7001 Master of Business Law Dissertation

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the amount of time students put into the study. Students can consult their supervisors through emails, faxes and telephone calls. Students can also visit their supervisors for face-to-face supervision and/or students can organize video conferencing sessions (if necessary). Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of Tourism and Hospitality Management

This program is designed for participants to conduct research in the area International Tourism and Hospitality Management. To receive a Master of Tourism and Hospitality Management degree participants must pass:

 

PRGM 8000 Post-graduate Research Methods and Analysis

MIBU 7001 Master of Tourism and Hospitality Management Dissertation

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the amount of time students put into the study. Students can consult their supervisors through emails, faxes and telephone calls. Students can also visit their supervisors for face-to-face supervision and/or students can organize video conferencing sessions (if necessary). Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Master of Environmental Management

This program is designed for participants to conduct research in any area of Environmental Management. To receive a Master of Environmental Management, participants must pass:

 

PRGM 8000 Post-graduate Research Methods and Analysis

MAEM 7001 Master of Environmental Management Dissertation

 

This program may be completed in 1 – 2 years depending on the amount of time students put into the study. Students can consult their supervisors through emails, faxes and telephone calls. Students can also visit their supervisors for face-to-face supervision and/or students can organize video conferencing sessions (if necessary). Each year is divided into 3 trimesters and each trimester is 13 weeks duration. Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Doctor of Business Administration (DBA)

This professional Doctor of Business Administration degree program is designed for business executives who hold a master’s degree or degree to conduct an in-depth applied research into an area of business administration and management. Through the utilization of appropriate research methodology, this DBA degree allows professionals and executives to apply research techniques and concepts to current work related issues. Candidate dissertations can focus either on the development or the application of knowledge within the context of an individual’s work environment, profession or industry. To receive a Doctor of Business Administration degree participants must pass:

 

PRGM 8000 Post-graduate Research Methods and Analysis

DBUS 8001 Doctor of Business Administration Dissertation

 

This program may be completed in 3 – 6 years depending on the amount of time students put into the study. Students can consult their supervisors through emails, faxes and telephone calls. Students can also visit their supervisors for face-to-face supervision and/or students can organize video conferencing sessions (if necessary). Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

This program is designed for participants to conduct an in-depth research in their area of study. The PhD dissertation must contribute to the existing body of knowledge and must be passed by external examiners. Part of the dissertation must also be accepted for publication as an article in a refereed journal during the student’s candidacy. To receive a Doctor of Philosophy degree participants must pass:

 

PRGM 8000 Post-graduate Research Methods and Analysis

DPHI 8001 Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation

 

This program may be completed in 3 – 6 years depending on the amount of time students put into the study. Students can consult their supervisors through emails, faxes and telephone calls. Students can also visit their supervisors for face-to-face supervision and/or students can organize video conferencing sessions (if necessary). Students can commence study in the middle of January, May or September of every year.